Introduction to Risk Assessment
Length of Seminar: 3-4 days
Instructors: Eric Vandenburg and/or Michael Savallo
An introductory level course intended to equip members of the law enforcement community with skills required to identify and deter potential terrorist activity. This course also introduces the student to the principles of risk assessment (an examination of the vulnerabilities associated with the infrastructure of a facility), basic methods of security, and the major components of a municipality’s critical infrastructure. In addition to classroom instruction, this course includes one (1) day of field exercises, consisting of a mock assessment of the facility. Upon completion, a written assessment will be prepared.
- Introduction to Terrorism
- Domestic Terrorism
- International Terrorism
- Potential Terrorist Targets
- Risk Assessment/Critical Infrastructure Protection
- Physical Security and Prevention of Terrorist Attack against a Facility:
Hostile Surveillance/Terrorist Surveillance
Improvised Explosive Devices
Suicide Attacks/Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Security Checkpoints/Vehicle Inspections
Terrorism against Transportation
- Access Control/Biometrics
- Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV)
- HVAC Systems
- Physical/Vehicle Barriers
1. Introduction to Terrorism
This module of instruction provides an introduction to the methods utilized by a terrorist or a terrorist group, including the hierarchical structure, an introduction to the methods utilized for training, funding, and gathering intelligence, the operational phases of a terrorist attack, and the process of target selection.
- Define the term “Terrorism”.
- Define the objectives of terrorism.
- Discuss historic terrorist events that have affected law enforcement in the United States.
- State the terrorist’s mission.
- Explain the components of a terrorist cell and their functions.
- Explain the characteristics of a terrorist operation.
- Explain terrorist operational phases.
2. Domestic Terrorism
An examination of Domestic Terrorist Organizations, delineating between right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists, lone wolf terrorists, and Special Interest/Single Issue organizations. Various case studies are discussed.
- Define “domestic terrorism.”
- Briefly explain how the image of a terrorist has transformed.
- List and explain the types of domestic terrorist groups.
- Identify Right-Wing groups
- Identify Left-Wing groups.
- Explain the “New World Order Conspiracy”
- Explain the “Lone Wolf” theory.
- Define Special Interest Groups.
3. International Terrorism
This module of instruction provides an examination of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, with particular focus on these organization’s primary spheres of influence and ideologies, methods of funding, past terrorist attacks and potential for attack against U.S. interests domestically and globally.
- Define International Terrorism
- Identify the State Sponsors of Terrorism
- Discuss various international terrorist groups.
- Explain the ideologies behind various international terrorist groups
- Explain the origins and goals of Al Qaeda.
4. Potential Terrorist Targets
This module of instruction examines both traditional and non-traditional targets for terrorist attack, as well as identifying facility vulnerabilities and making recommendations relative to the most appropriate form of countermeasure.
- List the critical infrastructure categories
- Understand the meaning of “credible threat”
- Understand why terrorists choose certain targets
- Understand terrorist tactics and targeting.
- Define the classes of targets and the tactics applied against those targets
- List the most likely scenarios of terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure targets
5. Risk Assessment/Critical Infrastructure Protection
This module of instruction provides an introduction to the vulnerabilities associated with the infrastructure of a facility, as well as its’ nodal relationships within the community.
- Define Risk Assessment.
- Define the following terminology:
- Define the Countermeasure Strategy.
- List and give examples of countermeasures for vulnerabilities.
- Explain Target Hardening.
- Define Critical Infrastructure.
- Identify threats to critical infrastructure.Identify various targets attractive to terrorist.
- Identify examples of routine patrol and how they can impact on terrorism.
- Identify how to gather and report intelligence with regard to reporting terrorist activity.Explain investigative techniques as they apply to terrorism.
- List what a first responder can do to disrupt terrorist activity.Explain a first responder’s role when responding to a suspected terrorist act.
6. Physical Security and Prevention of Terrorist Attack against a Facility
This module of instruction reviews basic fundamentals and foundations of a physical security of a facility. It explores the proper planning techniques that are required prior to conducting a Physical Security Survey. Emphasis is placed on the perception of threat levels and the likelihood of a location becoming a potential target based on its weaknesses, or vulnerabilities. An introduction to utilization of the various types of physical security devices, such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras and systems, types of fencing/barriers, HVAC, access/biometric control bomb blast mitigation and to address perimeter security and facility vulnerability.
- Examines various methods of access control, with a particular focus on developing technologies and the emergence of biometric systems as a means to enhance physical security and address a facility’s vulnerabilities.
- List various types of CCTV, as well as the various methods utilized to capture and store the captured video images,
- Explain the focus on the importance of CCTV as a component of risk assessment by enhancing physical security and addressing a facility’s vulnerabilities.
- List the variety and various types of fences, with a focus on the importance of fencing as a component of risk assessment by enhancing physical security and addressing a facility’s vulnerabilities.
- List importance of glazing as a component of risk assessment by enhancing physical security and addressing a facility’s vulnerabilities.
- Explain HVAC
- Describe the various types and means of physical security improvements required to prevent a terrorist from targeting a facility’s HVAC system.
- Explain the vulnerabilities of an HVAC system to a chemical or biological agent attack.
- List the various types of physical barriers that can be utilized to control pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic, thus enhancing physical security and addressing a facility’s vulnerabilities.
- Explain the variety of technologies and construction options that can be utilized to mitigate the impact of an explosive device.
7. Hostile Surveillance/Terrorist Surveillance
This module will aide in the understanding of hostile surveillance methodology, the different types of hostile surveillance and measures that can be taken to detect hostile surveillance. This segment of instruction defines the various types of surveillance (foot, vehicular, and technological) and serves to introduce the officer to the concepts of hostile surveillance and counter-surveillance.
- Define surveillance and why it is important to law enforcement
- Define what the principles of a successful surveillance are
- Define the objectives of a surveillance operation
- Define and describe surveillance terminology
- Identify the four types of surveillance: foot, vehicle, combined foot and vehicle and static
- Define how to counter the four basic forms of surveillance
- Know surveillance detection techniques
- Know surveillance pitfalls and common errors and how to avoid them
- Define techniques that should be used when making observation and taking descriptions of a person, place or vehicle
- Describe the different mechanical devices used in surveillance operations
- Define hostile surveillance
- Identify the steps followed by most terrorist organizations in planning attacks
- Identify the indicators of terrorist planning and indicators that law enforcement can use to recognize those actions
- Discuss the seven steps that terrorists logically follow in planning and executing an attack
- Describe suspicious activity that would indicate terrorist activity
- Describe the local protocol for reporting possible terrorist activity
8. Cyber Terrorism
This module of instruction provides an examination of the vulnerabilities associated with information technologies. This section will also examine the use of the Internet by Islamist terrorist organizations for the purpose of recruitment, funding and pre-operational surveillance, as well as case studies that involve the targeting of information technologies by these groups.
- Define the term “cyber terrorism”.
- List some “dangers” of the Internet.
- Explain various targets of our electronic infrastructure.
- Describe best practices for Computer and Physical Security.
- Demonstrate examples of terrorists’ use of the Internet.
9. Improvised Explosive Devices
This module of instruction provides an introduction to the methods employed in an attack utilizing a conventional explosive device, procedures to employ when responding to a report of a suspected explosive device, and a visual presentation introducing the officer to the common appearance of the various types of conventional explosives, including Ammonium Nitrate, Semtex/C4, dynamite, and TNT.
- Explain why bombs are used by terrorists.
- Identify the steps that are specific in nature to bombings.
- Explain the procedures to follow upon notification or discovery of a suspicious package.
- Explain how a bomb works.
- Explain how a bomb causes damage and discuss post blast effects/injuries.
- List the procedures to follow regarding a bomb threat.
- Identify various types and components of explosives.
- List guidelines to follow at a post explosion bomb scene.
- Explain general search guidelines for bomb scenes.
- Identify the keys to self-preservation.
- Identify injuries sustained at a bomb scene.
10. Suicide Attacks/ Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Devices
This module of instruction provides an examination of behavioral indicators and methodologies associated with the phenomenon of suicide attacks, including self-sacrificing attackers, suicide bombers, and Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices. Deals with the principals associated with VBIEDs and the methods and tactics utilized to screen vehicles and address operational procedural safety issues.
- Identify types of suicide attack.
- Identify stages in the evolution of a suicide attacker.
- Identify methods utilized for the delivery of an improvised explosive device (IED) by a suicide attacker.
- Describe the evolution and spread of pedestrian borne suicide bombings.
- Identify the hierarchical/organizational structures that support a suicide attack.
- Describe the strategic benefits associated with carrying out a suicide attack.
- Identify the visual behavioral indicators associated with a pedestrian-borne/suicide bomber.
- Identify the components utilized to construct a suicide bomber’s IED.
- Identify the individual behavioral indicators associated with a vehicle-borne suicide attack.
- Identify the vehicular indicators associated with a vehicle-borne suicide attack.
- Identify the policy regarding the identification of and response to a suicide attacker
- Identify effects caused by the detonation of an IED.
- Identify types of injury caused by the detonation of an IED.
11. Weapons of Mass Destruction
This module of instruction provides an introduction to Chemical/Biological/Radiological Nuclear (CBRN) agents/devices, including an examination of the types of terrorist groups that would utilize such agents, the methods of agent dissemination, the identification of symptoms that result in mass casualty patterns, and a definition of responsibilities of the First and Secondary Responder at the scene of a suspected release of a CBRN agent.
- Identify Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD).
- List and define Nuclear/Radiological Weapons used by terrorists.
- Define the term “Dirty Bomb”.
- Define the limitations of the use of Biological-Chemical materials.
- Identify various “Dissemination devices”.
- Define the classes of Biological agents.
- List and describe various Biological weapons used by terrorists.
- List and describe various Chemical weapons used by terrorists.
- Identify possible targeted locations of terrorist attacks.
12. Security Checkpoints/ Vehicle Inspections
This module of instruction examines principals associated with Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Devices, the methods and tactics utilized to screen vehicles and address operational procedural safety issues. The lesson provides an introduction to the tactics and procedures associated with vehicle security checkpoints and an intensive inspection of a vehicle or truck.
- List and explain what to look for when performing a general vehicle inspection.
- Explain the purpose of an interview.
- List the typical questions that can be asked during an interview.
- Identify indicators from an interview.
- Identify fight/flight physical and auditory manifestations.
- Explain what to be aware of when doing an undercarriage search of a vehicle.
- Explain what to be aware of when doing an exterior search of a vehicle.
- Explain what to be aware of when doing an interior search of a vehicle.
- List the four general rules to avoid injury.
13. Maritime Terrorism
This module of instruction provides an introduction to the methods that terrorist organizations have utilized to target maritime facilities and passenger-bearing craft, as well as the threats associated with protecting bridges and underwater tunnels from terrorist attack. This course examines the challenges associated with securing marine terminals, particularly in reference to the receipt, storage, and distribution of commercial containers, and also introduces the student to the major law enforcement agencies tasked with monitoring, regulating and investigating these various industries.
- Define Maritime and Seaport Security
- Identify the risk from sea containers
- Identify vulnerabilities of maritime ports
- List terrorist groups that utilize maritime tactics